Papers

Avoiding Collisions At Sea – Pareto Analysis

Authors: Prof Reza Ziarati, Capt. Nicolai Velikov,Capt. Djani Mohovic,Capt. Himadri Lahiry, Dr. Eng. Ersin OzTurker, Dr. Basak Akdemir, Capt. Robert Mohovic, Capt. Renato Ivce, Mag. Eng., Mate Baric, Silja Teege

It has been almost 40 years since the 1972 International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea known as COLREGs were introduced, and regular amendments have been taking place accordingly ever since. Over the last half-century despite improvements in navigational aids such as ARPA and attempts to raise the standards of training through the various STCW conventions, collisions still occur. Many studies and accident reports indicate that the accidents were caused by either human error or are associated with human error as a result of inappropriate human responses. Collisions commonly represent many of these accidents. This paper discusses key issues regarding the application of Collisions Regulations (COLREGs) at sea, reports on the outcome of a recent EU funded eCOLREGs project known as ACTs and a report on a Pareto Analysis supporting the work being carried out in a new project called ACTS Plus which considers more complex cases where there are several rules applied or where there are more than two ships involved in a collision. This paper does not attempt to examine each and every rule included in regulations but the EU Project ACTs and ACTS Plus online platform include some 300 scenarios, many developed and videoed in ship simulators, for those interested to review and explore more. This paper discusses the importance of studying cases where the applications of certain rules or where more than one rule applies are open to misinterpretation.

Keywords: COLREGs, maritime education and training, collision avoidance, Pareto Analysis

Literature survey of business models and competitive advantage of Family Businesses in Turkey

Authors: Kaptanoglu, S. and Ziarati, R.

Existing research reveals that many family businesses do not survive after the first two generations. This has been found to be due to management approaches prevalent in these types of businesses, viz. the lack of cooperative decision making processes and the owners’ unwillingness to involve non-family members in the decision-making processes.

The paper provides an in-depth literature survey of business models and competitive advantage. This paper is a part of research programme to investigate the development of a business knowledge framework, containing the necessary knowledge for managing a family business. This paper reviews a number of business models and provides an in-depth analysis of characteristics of these models focusing on core aspects such as management practices and competitiveness generally. It was concluded that a business is a set of activities and, how and when these are performed to earn a profit.

Keywords: Family Business, Business Model

LEANSHIP - Design and Development of a High Fidelity Integrated Ship Management System for Matching Engine Operations to Sea and Air Conditions

Authors: Ziarati, R. and Akdemir, B. Y.

This paper reports on a project that aimed to regulate the navigational equipment and engine performance parameters for minimum fuel consumption and exhaust emissions by taking advantage of wind and sea conditions while ensuring compliance with EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index) without the risk of intentional reductions of speed. The primary experiments have shown substantial fuel saving potential. To achieve this aim, key operating factors affecting the efficiency of ship operations were investigated and methodologies to optimise navigation and engine control systems for safe operations and efficient performance were developed. Also a set of high fidelity tools and processes for the accurate and efficient analysis of air and sea conditions were considered. The project included hydrodynamic analysis for ships’ operational performance in normal running conditions as well as slow speed behaviour. The project work concerned the adaptation of multi-objective optimisation and integrated design environments for holistic operational performance and minimum powering requirement predictions; this is expected to ensure safe application of the design rules whilst guaranteeing the right balance between economic efficiency, environmental performance and safety. The main deliverable of this project was a decision support system to provide navigation knowledge to regulate engine running conditions for minimum fuel consumption and lowest feasible CO2 emission. The project is ongoing and the overall system is expected to comprise a standalone platform composed of all hardware and software systems.

Business Process Improvement By Advanced Innovation Process Management In SME

Authors: Urosevic, L., Reimer, P., Kotte, O., Guelcu, N., Elorriaga, A., Lopez, S. Ziarati, R., Ziarati, M. Singh, L.

Business process improvement, as an unavoidable component of the companies’ strategy, particularly for SMEs, is deeply interwoven with innovation in general and both are condition for surviving and thriving in the global economy. This paper describes an approach and ICT system for supporting business process improvement following a structured way to innovation process management. The innovation process management approach based on agile principles in methodology and a corresponding ICT supporting solution is presented. Two application cases, one dealing with development and manufacturing of weighing systems against specs and regulations and one dealing with development and manufacturing of systems for Monitoring and Control of Assembly Processes in the manufacturing industry, where the system prototype was tested, are briefly described as well.

“The paper was presented in International Working Conference ’’Total Quality Management – Advanced and Intelligent Approaches’’, 4th – 7th June, 2013. Belgrade, Serbia"

Keywords: Process improvement, Innovation management, Decision support system.

Design Of An Innovation Platform For Manufacturing SMEs

Authors: R. Ziarati, M. Ziarati, L. Singh

This paper reports on the conception of a collaborative, internet-based innovation platform with semantic capabilities, which implements a new methodology for the adoption of a systematic innovation process in globally-acting networked SMEs. The main objective of the innovation platform is to stimulate the generation of ideas, the selection of good ideas and their ultimate implementation. The platform will support SMEs to manage and implement the complex innovation processes arisen in a networked environment, taking into account their internal and external links, by enabling an open multi-agent focused innovation system, facilitating customer, provider, supplier and employee-focused innovation. The solution is specifically focused on the needs of manufacturing SMEs and will observe product, process and management innovation. The paper presents the key elements of the innovation model and makes references to a novel approach concerning the development of a robust and flexible Central Knowledge Repository for the innovation platform.

“The paper was presented in the 11th International Conference on Manufacturing Research (ICMR 2013), Cranfield University, Cranfield UK, 19-20 September 2013, pp 51-55, ISBN 978-1-907413-23-0, ISSN 2053-3373."

Keywords: Innovation Modelling, Innovation Platforms, Knowledge Repositories.

Looking into the Future – LeanShip LeanShip: Development of an Integrated Ship Management System Ensuring Efficient Propulsion and Minimum Emissions of Pollutants

Authors: R. Ziarati, M. Ziarati, L. Singh

The paper reports on the outcome of research that investigates the key design and operating factors affecting the safety of ship operations, and develops methodologies to optimise navigation and engine control systems for safe operations and efficient performance, in view of the introduction of the new International Maritime Organisation (IMO) standards related to energy efficiency, in particular the EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index). Furthermore, the paper includes the necessary safety requirements of the vessels currently not covered by the EEDI, in anticipation of future energy efficiency requirements for these categories of vessels. There are references to the development of high fidelity tools and processes for the accurate and efficient analysis of safety and performance-sensitive hydrodynamic problems.

Keywords: Efficient Ship Propulsion, Ship Engine Management; EDDI, Lean Ships

What Is Wrong? A Review of National, European and International Efforts in Improving the Standard and Quality of Maritime Education and Training

Authors: R. Ziarati

It is continually reported that 80% of accidents at sea are due to human factors, and yet no progress has been made towards reducing this percentage despite many changes and amendments to the IMO STCW Code. The question remains, why? This paper reports on the role of the national, European and international bodies, such as the national administration, EMSA and IMO in recent years, and their efforts towards improving the standards and quality of maritime education and training (MET). The paper reviews the recent changes to the IMO STCW in 2010 and identifies several deficiencies which still need the attention of the maritime community. There are special references to the grass root efforts, including the work of the networks such as MariFuture to support the wider efforts by national administrations, EMSA and the IMO.

Removing Barriers to Mobility of Seafarers

Authors: M. Ziarati, R. Ziarati, U. Acar

Every seafarer would like to have the freedom to work on board as many foreign flag vessels as possible using her/his qualifications acquired in her/his own country. The certificates issued by a national administration are expected to satisfy the minimum requirements set by International Maritime Organisation (IMO), which should ideally satisfy the national requirements of member states of IMO and hence acceptable to all IMO member states. However, in reality this is not a case and the certificates issued by one country are not universally accepted or transferable to other flags. This situation restricts the mobility of seafarers; thus causing nationally qualified professionals often to be excluded from working on/commanding identical vessels other than those registered by the seafarer’s own national flag. Considering that there are imbalances of surpluses and shortages of officers and ratings in most countries, current situation does not help to address the shortages by taking advantage of the surpluses elsewhere.

Keywords: TRECVET, Small Commercial Vessels, Qualifications

Establishment of a Common Platform for the Maritime Education and Training

Authors: E. Demirel, R. Ziarati

MET acronym stands for Maritime Education and Training and is primarily concerned with the Seafarers’ education and training aspects in particular seafaring officers. The maritime industry is a vital sector in the world economy, which covers more than forty professional areas and it is inherent that most of them have close relations with the seafaring profession. The recent SAIL AHEAD project studies demonstrated that seafaring officers may easily be adapted to most jobs in the maritime industry with some additional education and training efforts. Many of the jobs ashore are carried out by experienced seafarers.

Keywords: Maritime Education and Training, Maritime Industry

Developing A Maritime English Programmes For MarTEL And MarTEL Plus – Project SeaTALK

Authors: M. Ziarati, R. Ziarati, A. Şıhmantepe, S. Sernikli, U. Acar

The SeaTALK project concerns the development a standard International online English language course for seafarers. The course will be in line with IMO requirements and the European Qualification Framework. The project is expected to support the Maritime English standards developed as part of the EU funded MarTEL and MarTEL Plus projects. The course will be incorporated in the EU funded UniMET Project when concluded in 2015. MarTEL and MarTEL Plus developed a set of standards (tests) in English language competency for seafarers and UniMET is a set of complete training programmes for all types and ranks of ship officers. SeaTALK will form the English Language competency development material and tools for UniMET.

Keywords: Maritime English, Maritime English Standards, Maritime English Course Development, Language Competency, English Language Competency.

Validating Maritime English Learning Outcomes And Competences

Authors: A. Şıhmantepe, S. Sernikli, S. Toncheva, D. Zlateva

SeaTALK Project aims to establish a harmonized comprehensive framework for Maritime English Education and Training where a standard approach to teaching, learning, assessment and transparency of qualifications throughout Europe is established for each type and rank of seafarers. It will seek to establish Maritime English ECVET model for mutual recognition and transparency of learning outcomes and competences.

Keywords: Maritime English, SeaTALK, Competence, Learning outcome, validation, Seafarer language skills

Piecemeal Approach to Development of STCW and the Consequences – A Case for Comprehensive Review of the Current Maritime Education and Training Standards

Authors: R. Ziarati, M. Ziarati

This paper reports on the outcome of recent research works which point out the need to bring together the main stakeholders, such as IMO and EMSA, as well as the key sector innovators, in order to review the requirements of the shipping industry. The paper argues for a new set of standards for the education and training of ship officers and ratings.

Keywords: Maritime Education and Training, UniMET, Offier Class Standards, Master Class Standards

IMPACT - Innovative Maritime Training Products

Authors: H. Koivisto, R. Ziarati, M. Ziarati, U. Acar

The IMPACT project partners are five major European Maritime Education and Training (MET) organisations. These are C4FF’s Maritime Education based in UK, TUDEV Institute of Maritime Studies from Turkey, Satakunta University of Apllied Sciences in Finland (member of IAMU), the National Maritime Collage of Ireland and Spinaker based in Slovenia.

Encouraging research in maritime education and training

Authors: T. Albayrak and R. Ziarati

This paper intends to discuss innovative MET (Maritime Education and Training) projects to encourage future research collaboration which might be of interest to other higher education and training institutions.

Keywords: Higher Education, innovation, MET Programmes. research projects

Validation of the MarTEL Test: the Importance of Validity of the Test and the Procedure for Validation in MarTEL

Authors: M. Ziarati, J. Yi, R. Ziarati, S. Sernikli

This paper reports on the development of the EU funded Leonardo project called MarTEL. MarTEL concerns the development of a novel set of Maritime English Language Standards. MarTEL is designed to test mariner’s Maritime English through a series of online tests designed to cater for all types and ranks of seafarers.

Keywords: Maritime English, Test Validity and Reliability, MarTEL

The Novelty of CAPTAINS – the Communicative Learning Approach of Maritime English and its Facilitation by Technology

Authors: M. Ziarati, E. Malinowska, S. Tsekeridou, J. Kallergi

This paper presents one of the many novel aspects of the CAPTAINS project: developing rich media interactive educational software in which learners are able to record and self-assess their performance in communicative English, in addition to 3D virtual interactive learning environments, in which they are able to interact and"talk" to virtual maritime characters about handling situations at sea, in standalone mode but further published in an e-learning 2.0 platform, Kwebo, developed by AIT.

Keywords: Maritime English, communicative language teaching (CLT), CAPTAINS, authencity, richmedia interactive educational multimedia, 3D virtual learning environment, online learning community, e-learning 2.0 platform, KWEBO

The importance of developing test specification in the process of the Enhanced Oral Test

Authors: S. Toncheva, D. Zlateva, and M. Ziarati

The paper will explain the factors taken into consideration in the development of the Enhanced Oral Test, which is one of the outcomes of the EU Funded Leonardo MarTEL PLUS project. The development of an International test of the speaking skills of seafarers will be by its nature a very high stakes test and should be based on solid testing principles to ensure validity and reliability of the test scores.

Keywords: test specification, Enhanced Oral Test, Construct validity, sustainbility, test design, MarTEL, Maritime English Test

Combining Vocational and Academic Requirements in the Maritime Education and Training

Authors: E. Demirel, R. Ziarati

The main aim of the EU Vocational Education and Training (VET) is primarily to provide qualified people to support the economy. In order to achieve this aim the cooperation between business sector and VET institutions is necessary.

Keywords: Vocational Education and Training, Maritime Education and Training, Education-Industry partnership

Harmonising Maritime Education and Training at Sea and Ashore

Authors: R. Ziarati, U. Acar, M. Ziarati

The IMO developed the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW) that includes the minimum requirements for the maritime education and training (MET) of seafarers in 1978. There have been several major and minor amendments; most recent revisions were announced in June 2010.

Keywords: Maritime Education and Training unification, UniMET, Master Class Standards

IMPACT: Integrated Maritime Platform for Innovative Training Products

Authors: R. Ziarati, M. Ziarati, U. Acar

This paper reports on the development of a network called IMPACT which has been formed to promote the results of five highly successful completed EU funded maritime vocational education and training (MVET) projects. These projects have been directly addressing particular problems and deficiencies in MVET. Their selection has also been based on the fact that they applied innovative information and computer technology methods and tools in lifelong learning of seafarers.

Keywords: Maritime Innovative Leonardo ICT projects, Project selection, MET, IMPACT Project.

An investigation into colregs and their applications at sea

Authors: U. Acar, R. Ziarati, M. Ziarati

It has been almost 40 years since the 1972 International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea known as Colregs were introduced and there have been several amendments to Colregs rules since then until now. Collision avoidance is believed, in a sense, to prevent groundings, the striking of fixed obstacles and ships colliding. Over the last half-century despite improvements in navigational aids such as ARPA and attempts to raise the standards of training through various STCW conventions, collisions still occur. Many studies and accident reports indicate that the accidents are caused by either human error or are associated with human error as a result of inappropriate human responses. Collisions commonly represent the majority of these accidents.

Keywords: Colregs, maritime education and training, collision avoidance

Collisions and groundings – major causes of accidents at sea

Authors: U. Acar, R. Ziarati, M. Ziarati

A careful study of the accident reports reveals that 85% of all accidents are either directly initiated by human error or are associated with human error by means of inappropriate human response (Ziarati, 2006). This is in line with the findings of a recent paper (IMO, 2005) that 80% of accidents at sea are caused by human error. Turkish Government is also aware that collision is the most common type of accident in Turkey and this was again confirmed by the latest data published by the Main Search and Rescue Coordination Centre of Turkey in 2009. Collision amounted to 60% of all accidents if grounding and contacts are included.

Keywords: Colregs, maritime education and training, collision avoidance

Piloting The MarTEL Standards

Authors: H. Lahiry, M. Ziarati and R. Ziarati

The MarTEL projects (MarTEL and MarTEL Plus) aim at creating a series of innovative Maritime English language tests and learning materials. The MarTEL Project created the first international Maritime English standards for Cadets, Deck and Engineering Officers, and Senior Deck and Engineering Officers and also for Port Officials in the Merchant Navy. The MarTEL project‟s aims at widening the user group of the existing e- learning platform by providing a series of tests and learning materials. The projects are supported by the European Union through its Leonardo da Vinci programme.

Keywords: Maritime English, Assessment, Maritime English Testing, MarTEL

European Boat Design Innovation Platform – Learning From The Automotive Industry

Authors: R. Ziarati, and A. Sayakci

Design and manufacturing innovations are the keys to maintaining the competitiveness of the European boat industry in world markets. There are many similarities between the small boat and motor car design and manufacturing practices. While the automotive industry invests billions in R&D, the marine industry has been unable to match anything near the investment by the automotive industry. The sophistication of design and production practices in the marine industry has not been to the levels noted in the automotive industry.

Keywords: Boat Design, Boat Design Skills, Transfer of Technology from Automotive to Boat Design

Communication And Practical Training Applied In Nautical Studies

Authors: R. Ziarati, O. Bigland, M. Ziarati and U. Acar

Communicative language training set in the context of real-life situations at sea has hardly been part of any curriculum for training merchant navy officers. It is found that English language skills of the ships‟ crew is at a very low level, resulting in ineffective communication and it has also been identified that ineffective communication is the major cause of the many accidents. This fact along with the cultural diversities of multi-national ship crews creates a major current problem.

Keywords: Maritime English, communication, maritime education and training

Management Of The Safety Of Automation Challenges The Training Of Ship Officers

Authors: S. Ahvenjarvi

Management of the safety of the increasing automation onboard ships is a challenging task for ship officers. In this paper, the competency requirements and the training of deck and engine officers on the area is discussed.

Keywords: Ship automation, safety, training

SURPASS – A Response To The Increasing Automation Failures At Sea And In Ports

Authors: R. Ziarati, H. Koivisto and M. Ziarati

Safety is a key issue at sea and in ports. The number of accidents due to automation failures has been on the rise. Increasing automation onboard ships has created a major challenge for operators, owners and ship crews. In this paper, the competency requirements and the training of Deck and Engine Offi cers are discussed. It is important to understand what is essential for successful management of safety on board vessels. The recent research has shown that for successful management of safety, ship crews must be able to operate the automation systems safely, not only in normal operational conditions, but also in emergency situations.

Keywords: Ship automation, safety, training

International Cooperation For Maritime Education And Training

Authors: R. Ziarati, E. Demirel, H. Lahiry and M. Ziarati

This paper gives a background of MarEdu (Maritime Education) a partnership between Turkish Maritime Education Foundation (TUDEV) and Centre for Factory of the Future (C4FF) and its contributions to the development of MET (Maritime Education and Training) programmes and practices and its role in facilitating other MET and international maritime organisations to cooperate to achieve a common goal. The close cooperation and coordination with national and international counterparts enhances and provides mutual benefi ts for all concerned parties. European Union projects have become an essential tool in providing a catalyst and the cohesiveness of efforts that focus towards a common goal, providing mutual benefi ts to all participants. Research projects and common vocational studies play a signifi cant role in improving new methodologies, procedures and techniques.

Keywords: Maritime Education and Training, Cooperation for MET

Innovation In MET For New Career And Mobility Opportunities

Authors: R. Ziarati, M. Ziarati and U. Acar

This paper reports on the recent development and changes to Maritime Education and Training (MET) identifying the defi ciencies and best practices across Europe in order to create common STCW compliant MET programmes as well as provide seafarers with an online guidance tool to enable them to have professional careers support. This paper reports on the EU Transversal UniMET project which intends to harmonise MET practices across Europe by identifying the best practices. The UniMET partnership, working in collaboration with major awarding, accrediting and licensing bodies intends to crossreference and include the international and local/national requirements into the UniMET programme with the aim of embedding the programme.

Keywords: Maritime Education and Training harmonisation, Maritime Education and Training, e-learning, Online tool, career

Developing Scenarios Based On Real Emergency Situations

Authors: R. Ziarati, M. Ziarati and U. Acar

This paper reports on the outcome of the recent research carried out on accidents and incidents to develop a range of scenarios in full-mission simulators as well as on the development of e-learning/assessment platform for ship crew skill development primarily to prevent emergency situations and to manage emergencies when they occur. In the IMO MSC 82 meeting a great deal of emphasis was placed on the role of human factors in accidents at sea, focusing particularly on how human errors have led to great losses of life and property.

Keywords: Maritime Training and Education, Safety at sea, accident investigation, e-learning

Maritime Testing Of English Language: The Search For A Supranational Standard

Authors: U. Tezer and S. Serhan

Testing one's English Language in general is more or less standardized today. Standards of TOEFL and IELTS are widely accepted by international bodies and national institutions around the world. But when it comes to the testing of a language for a specific purpose which is mostly English, our view of the matter is not very clear. To the native speakers of English, the language for a specific purpose is a natural part of the learning when one studies maritime sciences. But to those who study maritime sciences in another language, it is an additional study, an extra effort to comprehend and express their learning in a foreign language.

Keywords: Maritime English, Testing, MarTEL

M’aider: Maritime Aids’ Development For Emergency Responses

Authors: R. Ziarati, M. Ziarati and O.Turan

This paper reports on the outcomes of recent research carried out on accidents and incidents instigated to create a range of scenarios for training applications in full-mission simulators relating to emergency situations. In the IMO MSC 82 [2006] meeting a great deal of emphasis was placed on the role human elements play in the cause of accidents at sea, focusing particularly on how human errors have led to great losses of life and property. It has also been acknowledged that emergency situations and the use of simulators have not been fully taken into consideration in the training of merchant navy officers. This industry would benefit immensely from a user-friendly/accessible training tool and programme for its sea-going and port personnel that would focus on emergency situations; the causes for these situations and how they are handled.

Keywords: Merchant navy education and training (MET), Safety at sea, e-learning

European Boat Design Innovation

Authors: R. Ziarati and S. McCartan

The European marine industry has a 26% share of the world market but growing competition from Asia and North America is threatening Europe’s future market share, as they adapt their products more closely to consumer demands. A recent review of research has indicated that European boat manufacturers must be able to respond to their customers and offer exciting innovative products. They will have to learn to react quickly to changing consumer preferences and engage in continuous research and development. Design and manufacturing innovation are the keys to maintaining the competitiveness of the European boat industry in world markets. The opportunity created by the EBDIG (European Boat Design Innovation Group) project to transfer innovations from the automotive industry to the boat industry is expected to result in optimised design methodologies, leading to more cost effective design practices complementing and improving the knowledge and skills of small craft designers.

Keywords: Boat design, Design skills, Telematics, Sustainability, High technology applications in automotive industry

Training: Onboard And Simulation Based Familiarisation And Skill Enhancement To Improve The Performance Of Seagoing Crew

Authors: T. Albayrak and R. Ziarati

Today development of Maritime Education and Training system is a dynamic process under the pressure of rapidly improving maritime technology. An ideal development cannot be achieved by considering the existing practice and internal processes and procedures only and needs to have a wider perspective by reviewing best practices and establish the necessary benchmark.

Keywords: MET, Skill enhancement, Advanced simulators, Onboard training

Safety At Sea – Applying Pareto Analysis

Authors: R. Ziarati

This paper reports on a major European Union funded project instigating an integrated programme of education and training for merchant navy officer including higher ranks. The project has adapted cross-referencing techniques and an analysis methodology viz., Pareto, to identify the problems that offer the greatest potential for improvements by showing their relative magnitudes and frequencies.

Review Of Accidents With Special References To Vessels With Automated Systems

Authors: Professor R. Ziarati, Dr M. Ziarati

TUDEV‟s new research and development project to make automated vessels safer has been approved by the Turkish National Agency and the European Union. The project was jointly developed by Professor Ziarati and Mrs Sadan Kapanoglu. The project is named Short Course Programmes for Automated Systems in Shipping (SURPASS).

New Methodologies And Technologies In Met

Authors: Capt. Taner ALBAYRAK, Prof. Dr. Reza ZIARATI

The radical amendments to the STCW Convention agreed in 1995 only came into effect in 2002, and the provisions concerning the need for governments to submit quality standards reports to IMO, concerning their national training and certification systems, were only required to be met as recently as 2004. However, sufficient time has probably elapsed to assess the extent to which the amendments have been a success in fulfilling their underlying objective – restoring confidence in the validity of seafarers‟ certificates of competence regardless of the country of issue. On the other hand, since 1995, there has been rapid revolution in design of ships and the equipment used in the navigation and propulsion systems on board these ships and yet there has been no serious attempt to revise the STCW and/or the International model courses.

Keywords: MET Programmes, STCW Code, short courses

Review Of Accidents With Special References To Vessels With Automated Systems – A Way Forward

Authors: R. Ziarati

The modern ships particularly container and fuel carrying vessels are becoming increasingly automated. The automation has brought with it two problems, one concerning the inadequacy of existing seafarers‟ education and training viz., that if any aspects of automation fails the crew often are not trained to use alternative systems and hence respond to it effectively (IMO MSC 82, 2006; Ziarati, 2006). The second problem has arisen from the review of the arguments from recent IMO Maritime Safety Committee (reports MSC 82/15/2 and MSC 82/15/3, 2006) namely that the human operators rarely understand all the characteristics of automatic systems and these systems‟ weaknesses and limitations which have now been found to be one of the main causes of major accidents. Also, concerns were expressed about the English language competency of seafarers of various ranks. These reports concluded that there is a need to improve the content of all maritime training to include knowledge, skills and understanding of automation and that teaching of English in maritime institutions should be improved. The paper refers to several serious and recent accidents at sea some due to automation failure and reports as to how serious attempts could be made to address both problems identified and improve the situation regarding the teaching of English in maritime institutions.

Design And Development Of A Diesel Engine Computer Simulation Program

Authors: S. OZKAYNAK, R. ZIARATI, E. BILGILI

This paper concerns the development of a diesel engine mathematical model and a suite of computer simulation programs which would allow the effects of various design and operational changes to be reliably and accurately predicted with the ultimate aim of producing cleaner engines and/or more efficient power units. The model has been tested against the experimental results of the Paxman engine at Newcastle University and earlier against the Atlas engine at Ricardo, Brighton, UK. The predicted results and the experimental data are in good agreement.

Improving Safety At Sea And Ports By Developing Standards For Maritime English

Authors: R. Ziarati, M. Ziarati, B. Çalbaş

The work reported here shows how communication failures can be addressed through removal of existing deficiencies in the training of the seafarers in Maritime English. EU funded Leonardo MarTEL project is addressing this deficiency through development of standards for Maritime English. The strength of the MarTEL Project is that it takes into consideration the language skills as well as the competency levels in each skill needed for each type and rank of seafarer. One important aspect unique to MarTEL is that it is ‘Maritime Test of English Language’ and not and ‘English Test of Maritime Knowledge’. The research reported in this paper has been used to underpin the development of standards for Maritime English within the MarTEL Project.

Keywords: Maritime English, MarTEL Standards, Safety at Sea, Communication Failures

Design And Development Of Ships Using An Expert System Applying A Novel Multi-Layered Neural Networks

Authors: S. Urkmez, R. Ziarati, E. Bilgili, M. Ziarati, D. Stockton

In this paper a neural network was designed and tested for estimating the cost of the activities and the hours of the activities in the shipping industry, by considering the ship parameters such as length of the ships, width, tonnage, etc. Multi-layered feed forward neural network trained by back-propagation algorithm was used in that work. Its results encouraged the research team to develop a new neural network model for representing also the indirect cost of ship construction. A neural network model was configured also for establishing the relationship between the cost of the activities and the indirect costs. The new network was trained by using data of eighteen different ships in order to finalize the design of four new ships.

Application Of Forecasting In Shipping Industry

Authors: B. Y. Akdemir, M. Ziarati, D. Stockton, R. Ziarati

The research presented in this paper is an attempt to forecast trends in shipping for 11 types of ship design in the last few decades by using conventional and neural networks. In this paper only the results for the bulkers will be presented. The results show that neural networks offer the best results and that it is possible to use information available in the market to complement and improve the reliability of neural network predictions.

Keywords: Shipping, product cycle, forecasting, neural networks

Activity Based Costing For Maritime Enterprises

Authors: S. O. Urkmez, D. Stockton, R. Ziarati, E. Bilgili

This paper reports how data used in constructing five ships was applied to configure a neural network with the intention of establishing, on the one hand, a relationship between the cost of the activities in building a ship and the ship’s identity parameters (length, width, tonnage, etc.) and on the other hand, to establish a relationship between the hours of the activities for a ship applying the same identity parameters.

Keywords: Activity Based Costing, ship building and neural networks

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Through Cooporative Decision Making In Shipping Industry In Turkey

Authors: S Kaptanoglu, D. Stockton, R. Ziarati

This paper focuses on long term, medium term and short term decision making process under strategic, tactical and operational categories and reports on the outcomes of an investigation into types and phases of shipping family businesses as well as other subjects relating to the business environment. This is carried out by seeking the views of a sample of companies in the shipping sector using a structured questionnaire followed by one-to-one interviews.

Keywords: Competitive advantage, decision making, shipping, family business

Development Of Standards For Maritime English – The EU Leonardo Martel Project

Authors: R. Ziarati, H. Koivisto, J. Uriasz

This paper reports on the progress of the EU funded Leonardo project MarTEL which concerns the development of a set of standards for Maritime English for application in Merchant Navy education and training programmes for cadet officers and officers of various types and ranks. The standards are based on transfer of innovation from existing English language standards and maritime English model courses such as International Maritime Organisation’s (IMO) Model course 3.17 and the IMO’s SMCP (Standard Maritime Communication Phrases, 2001). Recent reviews by several IMO member countries had identified that ‘there is a compelling need to promote a high level of working maritime English language skills’ for merchant navy officers.

Application Of Novel Artificial Intelligent Techniques In Ship Building Using Activity Based Costing And Neural Networks

Authors: S. O. Urkmez, E. Bilgili, R. Ziarati, D. Stockton

In this paper, a new neural network model was configured for establishing the relationship between the cost of the activities and the indirect costs. The new neural network model is a multi-layered, feed forward neural network. The output layer gives the indirect costs. The proposed neural network has been trained using back-propagation training algorithm. It has been trained by using data of sixteen different ships with a view to design five new ships.

Keywords: Activity based contents, Ship building, system design and manufacturing, knowledge-base-system, neural networks

Developing Competitive Advantage Through Cooperative Decision Making In Shipping Family Businesses

Authors: Ş. Kaptanoğlu, R. Ziarati, D. Stockton, Capt. T. Albayrak

This paper builds on the outcome of a recent paper titled, ‘Sustaining Competitive Advantage through Co-operative Decision Making’ by the same author which argued that only 2% of family businesses last more than three generations. The reasons were reported to be due to deep psychological factors preventing elaborate strategic and succession plans to be realised often due to poor delegation, poor leadership, lack of coordination and lack of expertise. It was also noted that many family businesses are transformed into other forms of businesses for commercial and/or financial reasons.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Shipping, Decision Making, Family Business

Surpass - Short Course Programme In Automatedsystems In Shipping

Authors: R. Ziarati, M. Ziarati

This paper report on the development of a short course programme design, delivery and assessment on automation in order to fill the gap created as the result of emergence and application of the automated systems. The delivery and assessment will be based on the results from two recent EU funded investigations regarding the development of an online learning (developed and tested in Leonardo Pilot EGMDSS, 2006) and eassessment (developed and tested in Leonardo MarTEL. 2009) will also be included in the paper. The internet platforms have facilities for self-learning and assessment.

Keywords: Automated ship-borne maritime systems, maritime education and training, SURPASS, ship automation

Encouraging Research In Training Institutions

Authors: R. Ziarati, T. Albayrak

Education and training are vital to the development and success of today's knowledge society and economy. The EU's strategy emphasizes countries working together and learning from each other while the EU education and training policy underlines that knowledge, and the innovation it sparks, are the EU's most valuable assets, particularly as global competition becomes more intense in all sectors under the hardships of the global economic crisis.

Keywords: MET Programmes, innovation, research projects

Developing an Effective Maritime Education and Training System- TUDEV Experiment

Authors: E. Demirel, R. Mehta

The purpose of maritime education and training (MET) is to supply manpower for the shipping industry. Furthermore, it aims to establish the fundamentals of the seafarer‟s discipline. MET covers a wide spectrum of training institutions which range from those delivering short-time courses to post-graduate studies. The ship, core element of the shipping, operates worldwide in a multinational, multicultural and multifunctional environment. To facilitate working in such a complicated environment, the seafarers must be trained taking into account the entire aforesaid environments, taking into consideration, all international standards and related regulations.

Keywords: MET, Maritime Standards, Navigation Engineering Programmes, Nautical Science Programmes, Maritime Education and Training

Fusion of Content and Skill in MarTEL Maritime English Standards

Authors: S. Sernikli, A. Sihmantepe

Starting point of MarTEL Project was to create standards in testing Maritime English (MarE) of three groups of seafarers, namely; the would-be cadets of maritime academies (Phase 1), graduates of these academies and the officers of junior rank (Phase 2) and the seafarers of senior level who are captains, chief engineers, pilots and other high level port authority personnel (Phase 3). Furthermore, the project also aims to create some sort of standardization for teaching of MarE by way of designing “study guidelines” and “study units” for each of its phases.

International Standards Of Maritime English As A Means To Improve Safety At Sea

Authors: N. Demydenko

This article gives background information about MarTEL Project and its achievements. The MarTEL Project is being developed by several European countries within the frameworks of European Union Leonardo da Vinci educational programme in order to establish international standards in Maritime English. In 2009 Ukraine – Kyiv State Maritime Academy, in particular, joined the project. Ukraine occupies the 5th place in the world in manpower for different ranks and classes of seafarers working on multi-national and multi-flagged vessels. The participation of the a Ukrainian higher educational institution in this project is one indication that Ukraine is interested and involved with international co-operation in order to reduce merchant vessels incidents and accidents caused by the human factor relating to Maritime English communication failure on board ships and in ports.

Keywords: Maritime English, international standards, safety of shipping, Leonardo projects.

Evaluation, Assessment, And Testing In Maritime English: Measuring Students’ Competence And Performance

Authors: R. Ziarati, T. Albayrak

Research has shown that the weakest link in Maritime Education and Training (MET) is the identification of the communication problems due to lack of standards for Maritime English. Communication failures have caused many accidents and incidents in the past. There have been many attempts to reduce communication failures and improve both the content and delivery of Maritime English. A recent EU Leonardo Project MarEng considered a great success in enhancing the current efforts in improving content and delivery of English Courses by MET providers. However, there are no international or European standards yet for the evaluation, assessment and testing in Maritime English to measure students’ competence and performance in this very important subject.

Keywords: Maritime English, Testing, Study Units, EU Leonardo Programme

Innovation in Maritime Education and Training

Authors: R. Ziarati, T. Albayrak and E. Demirel

The extensive amendments to the STCW Convention agreed in 1995 only came into effect in 2002 with some additional changes in January 2003. The provisions concerning the need for governments to submit quality standard reports to the IMO, concerning their national training and certification systems, were only required to be met as recently as 2004. The paper argues that sufficient time has elapsed to assess the impact of the changes introduced particularly the prime objective of the changes i.e. whether confidence is stored in the validity of seafarers’ certificates of competency regardless of the country of issue.

Keywords: STCW, Maritime Education and Training, European Maritime projects

Cadets Views On Undergoing Maritime Education And Training In English

Authors: R. Ziarati, E. Demirel

Several studies clearly indicate that most accidents at sea are related to human errors many of which are due to communication difficulties and are most frequently based on lack of appropriate knowledge of the English language. This language barrier is most common amongst multinational crews and port authorities, particularly in restricted waters. The correct use of English in the global maritime profession is considered crucial to avoid incidents at sea and to facilitate a more effective means of communication between ships and ship and port as well as to harmonise management and operations onboard vessels with multi-national crew. The number of ships with multi-national crew is rapidly increasing and this trend is expected to amplify in the future.

Keywords: Maritime Education and Training, Maritime Safety, Maritime English